skip to Main Content

Project Planning

  • Perform a risk assessment of the installation to assess the consequences of flooding due to blockages of silt and scale build up within the pipe system. Repeat this assessment for unexpected hydraulic demands due to accidental spillage, thunderstorms and extraneous events.
  • Perform the necessary risk assessment if the system is likely to be subjected to thermal shock. Within design limits, ACO Pipe is particularly tolerant of sudden temperature changes without risk of damage.
  • Avoid selecting pipe sizes that are at, or close to, their hydraulic capacities, as the long-term effects of silt and scale can reduce a system’s hydraulic capacity over time.
  • For storm water applications, check the geographical location to confirm the design rainfall intensity.
  • Confirm the actual gradient of the installed pipe system. A level (or nearly level) gradient will have a reduced hydraulic performance compared to installations with defined gradients.
  • Assess the fluids to be drained in the system to avoid corrosion of the pipe and/or seals. Checklist as follows:
    – Identify each chemical contained in the fluid.
    – Establish chemical concentration(s).
    – Confirm maximum temperature of the solution.
  • Design the system with the minimum number of joints and limit the number of bends. This will help to reduce both costs and hydraulic losses.
  • Provide go/products/installation-fittings/od access points for cleaning/rodding to maintain the hydraulic performance of the system.
  • Care should be taken to avoid damage, both during and after installation, as dents and kinks will affect the hydraulic performance. For above ground applications, damage will also affect the system’s aesthetics.

The following standards will assist designers select the correct size of pipe system for a particular application:

  • EN 12056: Gravity Drainage Systems Inside Buildings.
  • EN 752: Drain and Sewer Systems Outside Buildings.

Pipework Support

pipework supportInstallation should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, EN 12056–2, EN 12056–3 and EN 752.

Designers must ensure that all pipework is supported with brackets according to the requirements of AS/NZ 3500.

ACO Pipe® sockets are fitted with EPDM seals as standard for regular drainage applications. For particularly aggressive applications, FPM and NBR seals are available. Refer to the table below to assess suitability and contact ACO.

EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer)
EPDM was originally developed during the 1950s for vehicle tyre applications. It reached wider applications because of its suitability for outdoor use.

FPM (Fluoroelastomer)
FPM is a fluorocarbon and the best material for resistance to hostile chemical and oil environments at normal and elevated temperatures. This material is widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but is significantly more expensive than EPDM.

NBR (Nitrile rubber)
NBR has good water resistance, excellent chemical resistance and durability.

Seal Assembly Replacement or Upgrade

sealsThe double lip seal is easily removed and replaced from the female end of all ACO Pipe®, pipes and fittings. This allows easy on-site upgrade of the seal material.

Seal Installation Notes

  1. If changing the seal, ensure the correct size and grade of seal is selected for the application (see table below).
  2. Ensure the seal itself and the zone around the pipe and/or fitting receiving the seal is clean, dry and free from dust, grit and any metallic particles.
  3. Insert the dry seal into the pipe and/or fitting recess. NOTE: the seal MUST be inserted so the double sealing lips face away from the opening of the pipe and/or fitting.
  4. Do not use tools to aid the assembly process otherwise damage to the pipes, fittings and seals may occur.
  EPDMFPMNBR
Water ResistanceExcellentGoodGood
Chemical ResistanceAcids
Bases
Good
Good
Excellent
Good
Excellent
Good
Solvent Resistance (20°C)Alcohol
Acetone
Benzene
Good
Good
Unsatisfactory
Good
Unsuitable
Good
Good
Unsuitable
Unsuitable
Oil ResistanceASTM Oil No. 1 @ 20°C
ASTM Oil No. 1 @ 100°C
ASTM Oil No. 3 @ 20°C
ASTM Oil No. 3 @ 100°C
Fair
Unsatisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Unsatisfactory
Excellent
150°C Excellent
Excellent
150°C Excellent
Excellent
150°C Good
Excellent
150°C Good
Fuel ResistanceASTM Fuel B @ 20°CUnsatisfactoryExcellentExcellent
ResistancesOxidation
Ozone & Weathering
Excellent
Outstanding
Outstanding
Outstanding
Outstanding
Low
Heat ResistanceMaximum Continuous
Maximum Intermittent
130°C
150°C
205°C
300°C
80°C
100°C
Low Temperature Resistance– 50°C– 20°C– 30°C
Gas PermeabilityFairly LowVery LowVery Low
Physical StrengthGoodGoodGood
Compression Set ResistanceGoodGoodGood
Tear & Abrasion ResistanceGoodGoodGood
Cost Factor (1 = low)1202

Compared to cast iron, clay and vitreous pipe systems, stainless steel pipes have a considerably smoother bore (Manning Coefficient: 0.011) and in general, are less susceptible to internal scaling.

In some instances, low roughness coefficients (ks) are not generally a true reflection of the long-term hydraulic performance of the installed system. Roughness coefficients of 0.6mm should be used for rainwater/storm drainage and 1.5mm for soil/foul drainage.

Flow Tables

Two sets of flow tables are presented within this design guide.

Table 1 is for pipes installed with level (or nearly level) gradients where the steady, uniform flow equations are not applicable. The data therefore has been generated from ACO’s hydraulic design program ‘Hydro’ that is based on the equations of spatially-varied flow.

Table 2 is for pipes installed with varying gradients. The data is based on the Colebrook-White equation using an appropriate roughness coefficient for stainless steel.

When draining storm or foul water, it is inevitable that sediment deposits will occur within the drainage system.

Sediment and scale deposits will reduce the flow rate through any pipe system and it is recommended that an allowance is made for this within the design and planning phase.

Table 1 | Full bore flow rate tables for varying gradients for rainwater / storm drainage applications

Flow rates based on Colebrook-White formula.
Roughness coefficient ks = 0.6 mm

Gradient Pipe ø 50 mm Pipe ø 75 mm Pipe ø 110 mm Pipe ø 125 mm
[%] Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
10.0 2.74 1.52 8.40 2.01 23.81 2.60 33.61 2.83
7.5 2.38 1.31 7.28 1.74 20.62 2.25 29.11 2.45
5.0 1.94 1.07 5.94 1.42 16.83 1.84 23.77 2.00
4.5 1.84 1.02 5.64 1.35 15.97 1.74 22.55 1.90
4.0 1.73 0.96 5.31 1.27 15.06 1.64 21.26 1.79
3.5 1.62 0.90 4.97 1.19 14.08 1.54 19.88 1.67
3.0 1.50 0.83 4.60 1.10 13.04 1.42 18.41 1.55
2.5 1.37 0.76 4.20 1.00 11.90 1.30 16.80 1.41
2.0 1.23 0.68 3.76 0.90 10.64 1.16 15.03 1.26
1.5 1.06 0.59 3.25 0.78 9.22 1.01 13.01 1.10
1.0 0.87 0.48 2.66 0.63 7.53 0.82 10.63 0.89

Gradient Pipe ø 160 mm Pipe ø 200 mm Pipe ø 250 mm Pipe ø 315mm
[%] Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
10.0 64.15 3.31 116.89 3.83 218.31 4.45 401.51 5.15
7.5 55.56 2.87 101.22 3.32 188.95 3.85 347.54 4.46
5.0 45.36 2.34 82.65 2.71 154.13 3.14 283.52 3.64
4.5 43.03 2.22 78.40 2.57 146.17 2.98 268.90 3.45
4.0 40.57 2.10 73.92 2.43 137.77 2.81 253.45 3.25
3.5 37.95 1.96 69.14 2.27 128.82 2.63 236.99 3.04
3.0 35.13 1.81 64.01 2.10 119.20 2.43 219.31 2.82
2.5 32.07 1.66 58.43 1.92 108.74 2.22 200.09 2.57
2.0 28.68 1.48 52.26 1.71 97.18 1.98 178.83 2.30
1.5 24.84 1.28 45.26 1.48 84.05 1.71 154.70 1.99
1.0 20.28 1.05 36.95 1.21 68.48 1.40 126.07 1.62

Note: The flow rates shown above assume an unrestricted discharge from the pipe. For installations without an unrestricted discharge, the flow rate will be affected by the downstream throttle.

  • For shallow gradients, the Colebrook-White formula underestimates flow rates (because when gradient tends towards zero %, velocity also tends to zero).
  • For level or nearly level installations (slope < 1 %), spatially varied flow tables should be used.
Table 2 | Full bore rate tables for varying gradients for sewerage drainage applications

Flow rates based on Colebrook-White formula.
Roughness coefficient ks = 0.6 mm

Gradient Pipe ø 50 mm Pipe ø 75 mm Pipe ø 110 mm Pipe ø 125 mm
[%] Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
10.0 2.74 1.52 8.40 2.01 23.81 2.60 33.61 2.83
7.5 2.38 1.31 7.28 1.74 20.62 2.25 29.11 2.45
5.0 1.94 1.07 5.94 1.42 16.83 1.84 23.77 2.00
4.5 1.84 1.02 5.64 1.35 15.97 1.74 22.55 1.90
4.0 1.73 0.96 5.31 1.27 15.06 1.64 21.26 1.79
3.5 1.62 0.90 4.97 1.19 14.08 1.54 19.88 1.67
3.0 1.50 0.83 4.60 1.10 13.04 1.42 18.41 1.55
2.5 1.37 0.76 4.20 1.00 11.90 1.30 16.80 1.41
2.0 1.23 0.68 3.76 0.90 10.64 1.16 15.03 1.26
1.5 1.06 0.59 3.25 0.78 9.22 1.01 13.01 1.10
1.0 0.87 0.48 2.66 0.63 7.53 0.82 10.63 0.89

Gradient Pipe ø 160 mm Pipe ø 200 mm Pipe ø 250 mm Pipe ø 315mm
[%] Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
Flow rate
Q [l/s]
Velocity
v [m/s]
10.0 64.15 3.31 116.89 3.83 218.31 4.45 401.51 5.15
7.5 55.56 2.87 101.22 3.32 188.95 3.85 347.54 4.46
5.0 45.36 2.34 82.65 2.71 154.13 3.14 283.52 3.64
4.5 43.03 2.22 78.40 2.57 146.17 2.98 268.90 3.45
4.0 40.57 2.10 73.92 2.43 137.77 2.81 253.45 3.25
3.5 37.95 1.96 69.14 2.27 128.82 2.63 236.99 3.04
3.0 35.13 1.81 64.01 2.10 119.20 2.43 219.31 2.82
2.5 32.07 1.66 58.43 1.92 108.74 2.22 200.09 2.57
2.0 28.68 1.48 52.26 1.71 97.18 1.98 178.83 2.30
1.5 24.84 1.28 45.26 1.48 84.05 1.71 154.70 1.99
1.0 20.28 1.05 36.95 1.21 68.48 1.40 126.07 1.62

Note: The flow rates shown above assume an unrestricted discharge from the pipe. For installations without an unrestricted discharge, the flow rate will be affected by the downstream throttle.

  • For shallow gradients, the Colebrook-White formula underestimates flow rates (because when gradient tends towards zero %, velocity also tends to zero).
  • For level or nearly level installations (slope < 1 %), spatially varied flow tables should be used.

Stainless steel resistance table

The corrosion resistance information contained within this table is indicative only.

All data is based on reactions noted at an ambient temperature of 20°C. Higher temperatures will generally reduce the corrosion resistance of the materials.

Typical factors that affect material selection:

  • type(s) of chemical(s) and % composition in the liquid
  • concentration percentages
  • contact time with trough system
  • temperatures of liquid flowing into the trough
  • flushing system employed o clear liquids from the system
  • type of cleaning agent (see Care & Maintenance)
  • grate, locking mechanism and trash basket materials
  • sealant for compatibility, if applicable

Test samples should be used for final determination of chemical resistance, contact ACO.

recommendedRecommended
SuitableSuitable, contact ACO for further advice
NoNot recommended
No dataNo data available
ReagentStainless Steel 304Stainless Steel 316
Acetic Acid 20%yesyes
Acetic Acid 80%yesyes
Acetoneyesyes
Alcohol (Methyl or Ethyl)yesyes
Aluminium ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Aluminium Sulphateyesyes
Ammonia Gas (Dry)yesyes
Ammonium ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Ammonium Hydroxideyesyes
Ammonium Nitrateyesyes
Ammonium Phosphateyesyes
Ammonium SulphateQuestionyes
Ammonium Sulphideyesyes
Amyl Chlorideyesyes
Anilineyesyes
Barium Chlorideyesyes
Barium Hydroxide 10%No dataNo data
Barium Sulphateyesyes
Barium SulphideNo dataNo data
Beeryesyes
Beet Sugar Liquorsyesyes
Benzeneyesyes
Benzoic Acidyesyes
Bleach -12.5%Active C1No dataNo data
Boric Acidyesyes
Bromic AcidQuestionQuestion
Bromine WaterNoNo
Butaneyesyes
Calcium Carbonateyesyes
Calcium ChlorideNoQuestion
Calcium HydroxideQuestionyes
Calcium HypochloriteNoQuestion
Calcium Sulphateyesyes
Cane Sugar LiquorsNo dataNo data
Carbon AcidNo dataNo data
Carbon Bisulphideyesyes
Carbon Dioxideyesyes
Carbon Monoxideyesyes
Carbon TetrachlorideQuestionQuestion
Caustic Potashyesyes
Caustic Sodayesyes
Chloride (Dry)QuestionQuestion
Chloride (Wet)NoNo
Chloroacetic AcidNo datayes
Chlorobenzeneyesyes
ChloroformQuestionQuestion
Chrome Acid 50%NoNo
Chromic Acid 10%yesyes
Citric AcidQuestionyes
Copper ChlorideNoNo
Copper Cyanideyesyes
Copper Nitrateyesyes
Copper Sulphateyesyes
Cottonseed OilNo dataNo data
CresolNo dataNo data
CyclohexanoneQuestionyes
CyclorexanolNo dataNo data
DimethyleanineNo dataNo data
DionylphalateNo dataNo data
Disodium PhosphateNo dataNo data
Distilled Wateryesyes
Ethyl Acetateyesyes
Ethylene Chlorideyesyes
Ethylene Glycolyesyes
Ethylene Glycolyesyes
Ferric Sulphateyesyes
Fluorene Gas (Wet)NoNo
Formaldehyde (37%)yesyes
Formic Acid (90%)Noyes
Freon 12yesyes
Fruit Juices and PulpQuestionyes
Furfuralyesyes
Gasoline (Refined)yesyes
Glucoseyesyes
Glycerineyesyes
Hydrobromic Acid (20%)NoNo
Hydrochloric Acid (40%)NoNo
Hydrocyanic Acidyesyes
Hydrogen Peroxide (90%)yesyes
HydroquinoneNo dataNo data
Hypochlorous AcidNo dataNo data
IodineNoQuestion
Keroseneyesyes
Lactic Acid 25%yesyes
Linseed Oilyesyes
LiqueursNo dataNo data
Magnesium ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Magnesium Sulphateyesyes
Maleic AcidQuestionQuestion
Methyl ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Methyl Ethyl KetoneNo dataNo data
Milkyesyes
Minerals OilsNo dataNo data
Muriatic AcidNoNo
Nickel ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Nickel Sulphateyesyes
Oils and Fatsyesyes
Oleic Acidyesyes
OleumNo dataNo data
Oxalic AcidQuestionQuestion
Palmitic Acid 10%No dataNo data
Perchloric Acid 10%NoNo
Perchloric Acid 70%NoNo
Petroleum Oils (Sour)yesyes
Phenol 5%yesyes
Phosphorous Trichlorideyesyes
Photographic SolutionsQuestionQuestion
Picric Acidyesyes
Plating SolutionsNo dataNo data
Potassium Carbonateyesyes
Potassium Chlorideyesyes
Potassium Cyanideyesyes
Potassium Dichromateyesyes
Potassium Hydroxideyesyes
Potassium Permanganateyesyes
Potassium Sulphateyesyes
Propane GasNo dataNo data
Propyl AlcoholNo dataNo data
Sea WaterNoQuestion
SewageQuestionQuestion
Silver Nitrateyesyes
Silver Sulphateyesyes
Sodium Bicarbonateyesyes
Sodium Bisulphiteyesyes
Sodium Carbonateyesyes
Sodium Cyanideyesyes
Sodium FerrocyanideNo dataNo data
Sodium Hydroxideyesyes
Sodium HypochloriteQuestionyes
Sodium Sulphateyesyes
Sodium SulphideQuestionyes
Sodium SulphiteQuestionyes
Sodium Thiosulphateyesyes
Stannous ChlorideQuestionQuestion
Stearic Acidyesyes
Sulphite LiquorNo dataNo data
Sulphurous AcidQuestionQuestion
SulphurQuestionyes
Sulphur Dioxide (Dry)Questionyes
Sulphur Dioxide (Wet)Questionyes
Sulphuric Acid 50%NoNo
Sulphuric Acid 70%NoNo
Sulphuric Acid 93%NoNo
Tannic Acidyesyes
Tanning Liquorsyesyes
Tartaric AcidNo dataNo data
TolueneNo dataNo data
Trichloroethyleneyesyes
TriethanolamineNo dataNo data
Trisodium PhosphateNo dataNo data
Turpentineyesyes
Ureayesyes
Urineyesyes
Vinegaryesyes
Water (Fresh)yesyes
Water (Mine)yesyes
Water (Salt)QuestionQuestion
Whiskyyesyes
Winesyesyes
XyleneNo dataNo data
Zinc ChlorideNoNo
Zinc SulphateQuestionyes

Stainless steel and nitrile rubber are easy to clean. Washing with soap or a mild detergent and warm water, followed by a clean water rinse is usually adequate for most industrial applications. An enhanced aesthetic appearance will be achieved if the cleaned surface is finally wiped dry.

Acids should only be used for on-site cleaning when all other methods have been proved unsatisfactory. Rubber gloves should be used and care taken to ensure acid cleaners are not spilt over adjacent areas.

Special precautions are necessary with oxalic acid and solvents should not be used in closed spaces without adequate ventilation. Manufacturer’s directions should always be followed.

If the suggestions in the table below have been attempted and the result is still unsatisfactory, stainless steel is able to be mechanically cleaned by specialists on site. Please contact ACO for further information.

ProblemCleaning agentComment
Routine cleaning, all finishes.Soap or mild detergent and water (such as dishwashing liquid).Sponge, rinse with clean water, wipe dry if necessary.
Fingerprints, all finishes.Soap or warm water or organic solvent (e.g. acetone, alcohol).Rinse with clean water, wipe dry if necessary.
Stubborn stains and discolouration.Mild cleaning solutions or cream cleanser.Rinse well with clean water and wipe dry.
Oil and grease marks, all finishes.Organic solvents (e.g. acetone, alcohol).Clean after soap and water, rinse with cleanwater and dry.
Rust and other corrosion products.Oxalic acid.Rinse well with clean water. The cleaning solution should be applied with a swab and allowed to stand for 15–20 minutes before being washed away with water. Use a mild cleaning solution to give a final clean if required.
Scratches on brush (satin) finish.Household synthetic fibre scouring pads.Do not use ordinary steel wool, as particles can become embedded in stainless steel and cause surface problems. For deeper scratches; apply scourer in direction of polising. Clean with soap or detergent as per routine cleaning.
Back To Top